Technological properties of flour for the production of pasta

Flour is the main ingredient for making pasta. It is on the quality of the flour used that the consumer properties and quality of pasta depend. The main technological indicators of pasta flour are: the quality and quantity of gluten, the grinding size, the content of carotenoid pigments and dark inclusions.
The quantity and quality of gluten is the main indicator on which nutritional, physical, mechanical, and other properties of finished products depend . The more gluten in the flour, the more plastic the product will be. With too sticky, stretching gluten, the strength and elasticity of raw pasta will decrease, and with short-torn, loose, non-elastic gluten, on the contrary, you will get rough products that break off during the production process. In dry form, such pasta forms a large amount of marriage due to increased fragility . If the flour contains 25-30% gluten, the dough will be as dense as possible. The optimal content of gluten in flour is 30% or more. Such a percentage of the content gives the dough and finished products exactly those characteristics that indicate the high quality of pasta: elastic, elastic, moderately dense dough, smooth, uniform surface of the products, pasta perfectly retains its shape during drying, the percentage of losses and breakage is minimized. This justifies a slight increase in energy consumption for pressing products.
Pasta with a low gluten content cooks faster, but absorbs more water, sticks together, and the transition of solids to water is also increased. The “behavior” of pasta during the cooking process is also significantly affected by such a characteristic of flour as its protein content. It depends on the ability of pasta to absorb water during cooking, how much they will retain their shape when cooked.
Other characteristics of flour:
Presence of dark patches . From the content in the flour of the remnants of the aleurone layer of grain, particles of the grain shell, the germ, the inclusion of the remnants of other cereals, not only the appearance of the products suffers, but also the nutritional properties are lost, the shelf life of the flour decreases. An excess of peripheral grain particles increases the content of enzymes in the flour, including those that increase the browning of pasta during the drying process. Therefore, the dark shade of the finished pasta indicates an excess of inclusions of extraneous grains.
Grinding size does not significantly affect the quality and characteristics of the final product, but affects the physical and mechanical properties of pasta. To achieve optimal indicators of strength, plasticity and elasticity of products, the size of flour particles in the range from 250 to 350 microns is desirable.
Flour mills often do not pay enough attention to the cleaning of pasta grits, this is due to the rather high cost and shortage of raw materials (despite the low quality). This is due to the too high content of bran in Russian pasta - this explains the large number of dark dots and inclusions on the surface of the finished product.
Water. The water used in the production of pasta is subject to no less stringent requirements than other components of the dough. The main one is safety. Water for making pasta dough must fully comply with sanitary standards and have a neutral, pleasant taste.